Answered By: Mary Kaye Hooker
Last Updated: Sep 12, 2018     Views: 36

E-mail communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications.

​However!​ Because personal communications are not a resource that other researchers can look at, review, and use, email communications​ are not included in the reference list.

Cite personal communications in text only. Give your correspondent's initials and surname, and provide as exact a date as possible.


T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)


(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)

Because Emails can be faked or made-up, authors like yourself are responsible for the accuracy of all references. This includes verifying the source of e-mail communications before citing them as personal communications in manuscripts.

(This material was adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual; Source: